Parochial Politics: Definition and Culture

Parochial Politics: Definition and Culture
Parochial Politics, Understanding, Culture, Characteristics, Subjects, Participants, Experts: In this case in general, the understanding of political culture is the pattern of behavior of a society in the life of the state, the administration of the state, government politics, law, customs and norms that are lived towards all members of the community every day. Political culture is defined as a system of shared values of a society consciously to participate in making collective decisions and public policies for the whole community.

Parochial Political Culture and Understanding and Its Characteristics
Understanding Culture
The word culture comes from the Saduri Language of their predecessors or ancestors because the culture is hereditary and passed down from generation to generation. When talking about cultural issues maybe people will immediately associate it with customs or art. Even from the understanding of culture alone, we can conclude that culture is everything that comes from human reason, including religion, science, technology, buildings, and language.

Understanding Politics
The word politics comes from the Greek word Polis which means city state or policy which in English means policy. Whereas in Arabic, politics is also called siyasah which means clever or wise.
From these various meanings, we can conclude that politics is always associated with decision making, policy, and power. Politics basically has a state scope, because the state is a high political institution that affects people's lives. Politics also includes ideas, principles, history, and community groups.

Understanding Parochial Political Culture
Parochial political culture is the lowest type of political culture, in this political culture people do not feel that they are citizens of a country, they identify themselves more with a feeling of locality. There is no pride in the political system. They have no attention to what happens in the political system, they have little knowledge about the political system and rarely talk about political problems.
This political culture also indicates that the people do not have the interest or ability to participate in politics. Feelings of political competence and political power automatically do not arise, when dealing with political institutions.
For this reason, the emergence of feelings of political competence and political empowerment has made it difficult to build democracy in a parochial political culture. Democracy in a parochial political culture can only be built if there are institutions and a feeling of new citizenship.

Understanding Political Culture According to Experts
From the discussion of cultural understanding and political understanding above, surely we already understand or at least have a little picture of what political culture is. To be clearer, here are some notions of political culture according to experts:

Sidney Verba
Politics is an empirical, symbolic, and values system of beliefs that confirms a situation where political action is carried out.

Alan R. Ball
Political culture is an arrangement consisting of attitudes, beliefs, emotions, and values of the community that are related to political systems and issues.

Robert Dahl
Political culture is the political aspect of a system of values consisting of ideas, knowledge, customs, superstitions and myths. All of these are known and recognized by most people. The political culture gives rational to reject or accept other values and norms.

Lucian Pye
Political culture especially in the aspect of political development in developing countries, with the main indicators concerning political insight, how the relationship between goals, and the standard way to assess political actions and values that stand out for political action.

Mochtar Masoed
Political culture is the attitude and orientation of citizens of a country towards the life of state government and politics in the country.

Political culture is the attitudes, choices and political orientation of citizens towards the political system in their country and implemented in their society.

Rusadi Sumiputra
Political culture is the pattern of individual behavior and orientation towards political life that is lived by all members of the political system.

Parochial Political Culture
Parochial political culture is a political culture where the level of political participation is very low. Political culture of a society can be said Parochial if the frequency of their orientation towards the four dimensions of determinants of political culture is close to zero or has no attention at all to the four dimensions.

The Characteristics of Parochial Political Culture
Low political knowledge
Do not care and withdraw from political life
Community members tend not to take an interest in broad political objects
Community members' awareness of the existence of a center of authority and power in their community is low
Citizens do not get their hopes up in the political system
There is no specific political role
The scope is narrow and small
The society is simple and traditional
parochial political culture, that is, people in the interior tribes where they do not yet know who their country leaders are and do not participate in the elections at all.

Political Culture Subject / Subject
Kaula political culture (subject), namely the political culture in which the community concerned is relatively advanced both socially and economically but is still passive. The political culture of a society can be said to be the subject if there is a high frequency of orientation towards the knowledge of the political system in general and the object of output or there is an understanding of the strengthening of policies made by the government. However, the frequency of orientation regarding structure and role in policy making by the government is not given much attention.

Cultural Characteristics of Subjects / Subjects
Having sufficient political knowledge
Political participation is minimal
Low political awareness
The economic life of citizens is good
The level of education is relatively advanced
The community is fully aware of government authority
Citizens are quite satisfied to accept what comes from the government
Citizens consider themselves less able to influence the political system
People passively obey officials, the government and the law
The Political Culture of the Subject / Kaula namely the Javanese community (palace) in Jogja. Where people already have an understanding & awareness of the importance of participating in politics, but they are helpless and uncritical (just following orders, not giving aspirations).

Participant Political Culture
Participant political culture, that is, political culture characterized by a very high political awareness. The community is able to give their opinions and be active in political activities. And it is also a form of political culture where members of the community already have a good understanding of the four defining dimensions of political culture. They have adequate knowledge about the political system in general, about the role of government in making policies and strengthening, and actively participate in the ongoing political process

Characteristics of Participant Political Culture
High political knowledge
High political awareness
Active political control
Citizens have sensitivity to problems or issues concerning political life
Citizens are able to judge against problems or political issues
Citizens are aware of the authority or authority of the government
Citizens have an awareness of their roles, rights and obligations, and responsibilities
Citizens are able and brave to provide input, ideas, demands, criticism of the government
Citizens have the awareness to obey the rules and policies issued without feeling depressed
parochial political culture, namely the activeness of the community towards various matters relating to politics such as elections, demonstrations, and others.
Political culture is a pattern of behavior in a society in the life of the state, the administration of the state, government politics, law, normal habits that are lived by all members of the community every day.

"Political Culture of Subjects / Subjects" Definition & (Characteristics)
Political culture can also be interpreted as a shared value system of a society that has the awareness to participate in collective decision making and public determination for the whole community.

Definition of Political Culture of Kaula (Subject)
Which is a political culture in which the community concerned is relatively advanced both socially and economically but is still passive. The political culture of a society can be said to be the subject if there is a high frequency of orientation towards the knowledge of the political system in general and the object of output or there is an understanding of the strengthening of policies made by the government.
However, the frequency of orientation regarding structure and role in policy making by the government is not given much attention. The subjects were aware of government authority and were effectively directed at that authority.
Public attitudes toward the existing political system are shown through pride or even dislike. In essence in the subject's political culture, there is already adequate knowledge about the political system in general and the process of strengthening policies made by the government.
Democracy is difficult to develop in societies with a subject's political culture because each citizen is not active. Feelings affect the political process when they have made contact with local officials. In addition, they also have low political competence and political empowerment so it is very difficult to expect high political participation, so that the creation of a control mechanism for the running of the political system.
Political culture which shows that the members of the community have an interest, attention, perhaps also awareness of the system as a whole, especially in the output aspects.

Characteristics of Political Culture of subjects / subjects
The characteristics of the political culture of subjects / subjects are:
There is demand, awareness and attention to the political system.
There is an understanding and understanding of things that become government policy.
Passive participation in policy making.
If you do not like the prevailing political system, the community is just silent and has feelings.
The social and economic level of society is relatively advanced, but the relationship between the community and the political system is passive.
Public awareness of government authority.
Society in general is obedient, accepting, loyal and loyal to the suggestions, orders and policies of its leaders.
Thus the discussion on "Political Culture of Subjects / Subjects" Definition & (Characteristics) Hopefully with this review can add insight and knowledge of you all, thank you very much for your visit.

Understanding and Kinds of Political Ideology

Understanding and Kinds of Political Ideology
Political Ideology - Definition, Kinds, Functions, Socialism, Experts: Political ideology is a set of values, ideas, norms, beliefs and beliefs that a person or group of people has to achieve goals, decisions, power and regulate towards the direction better (madani and harmonious).

Political Ideology
Politics is the activity of a person or group to regulate, control, decision-making, and the interests to go in a direction that is better than before which is harmonious and civilized.
Political ideology is a set of values, ideas, norms, beliefs and beliefs that a person or group of people has to achieve goals, decisions, power and manage to go towards a better direction (civil and harmonious). Ideology is the basis of attitudes towards political events and problems encountered and determinants of political behavior.
The basis of political ideology is the belief in the existence of an ideal pattern of social and political order. Ideology cannot be equated with a philosophy that only contemplates, but has a purpose of moving in real activities and actions. In its development, ideology is influenced by events or events in the community where they are.
In social science, political ideology is a collection of ideas and principles that describe how the community should work, and offers a summary of certain community orders. Political ideology is generally about him with how to regulate power and how it should be done or implemented.
The communist theory of Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels and their followers, known as Marxism, is considered to be the most influential and fully explained political ideology in the 20th century. Other ideological examples include: capitalism, anarchism, communism, conservatism, communitarianism, neoliberalism, Christian democracy, monarchism fascism, nationalism, liberalism, socialism, Nazism, libertarianism and social democrats.
Ideology is a set of goals and ideas that lead to one goal, action and hope. So, political ideology can be interpreted as a set of goals and ideas that describe how a people work, and how to manage power.

Understanding Politics According to Experts
Understanding politics according to some experts, among others, as follows:

Ramlan Subakti
politics is the process of interaction between government and society to determine the common good for people who live in a certain area.

Paul Janet
politics is the science that governs the development of the country as well as the principles of government.

politics is an attempt to seek and maintain power in society. Power is the ability to influence others to behave in accordance with the will that influences.

Miriam Budiardjo
Politics is an effort to determine the rules that can be accepted by most citizens, to bring the community towards a harmonious life together. At this time politics is no longer in the normative sense anymore, because politics which is currently mostly defined is politics that emphasizes efforts to achieve a better society, such as power, decision making, policy policy, value allocation, and so on.

Rod Hague et al
politics is an activity that involves the way groups reach collective and binding decisions through efforts to reconcile differences between their members

Andrew Heywood
politics is the activity of a nation which aims to make, maintain, and amend general rules that govern its life, which means it cannot be separated from the symptoms of conflict and cooperation.

Various Kinds of Political Ideology
In political science, many ideologies are currently developing, among others, capitalism, liberalism, socialism, Pancasila and so forth. With the conflict gave birth to the progress of social science, especially political science which is increasingly developing and giving birth to a variety of new paradigms. The following will explain the ideologies contained in political science.

Liberalism comes from the word liberal which means "free". In liberalism, individual freedom, competition between owners of capital (capital), and restrictions on the power of the king (government). Therefore, liberalism and capitalism are sometimes seen as the same ideology.
Freedom has emerged since human existence in the world, because in essence humans often seek freedom for themselves. The form of freedom in politics in ancient times was an application of democracy in Athens and Rome. However, the emergence of liberalism as a notion at the end of the 17th century.
Liberalism existed in the late 17th century, related to the collapse of feudalism in Europe and the beginning of the Renaissance, followed by political movements during the French Revolution. Liberalism today is related to Adam Smith, known as classical liberalism. At this time, the kingdom (government) is hands off, which is in accordance with the Laissez-Faire concept. This concept emphasizes that the kingdom must give freedom of thought to the people, not obstruct the ownership of individual or group property, limited royal power and freedom of the people.

Development of political freedom
The call for freedom was echoed after earlier in the 16th century and early 17th century, the Reformation of the Church and the advancement of science made people who were depressed by the power of the church want to be free from various bonds, be it government, religion, and social. According to Adam Smith, liberal is freedom from restrictions (free from restraint), because liberalism offers the concept of life free from the supervision of the church and the king.

Capitalism (capitalism) comes from the word capital (capital), which means capital. Capital here is a means of production, such as land and money. Thus, the meaning of capitalism is an ideology in which power is in the hands of capital or the owner of capital, an unlimited free economic system based on profit, where society competes within these boundaries.
In the view of capitalism, each individual is not part of the community, but the party who must fight for their own interests. In the struggle, the determining factor is production. Weak producers will be eliminated and superior producers will survive.
Thomas Hobbes states that every person will naturally look for the fulfillment of needs for himself. Jhon Locke has the opinion that humans have personal rights. Adam Smith continued the free market with his own rules, meaning that there was no interference from the government in the market. The theories of these figures increasingly developed with the Industrial Revolution.

Socialism is an understanding that has a goal as a form of turning society into a tool of production to be shared property, as well as the sharing of results equally in addition to the division of labor and consumption material as a whole. in socialism each individual must strive to obtain appropriate services for happiness together, because in essence, humans live not only to be free, but also to help one another.
Solialism as we know it today Socialism was actually born before it was sparked by Karl Marx. The person who first raised the idea of socialism was Francois Noel Baneuf, in the 18th century. Then came other figures such as Saint Simon and Fourier in France, Robert Owen in England. They tried to improve the situation of the people because they were motivated by a sense of humanity but they were not based on a clear concept and were thought of as mere dreams, so they were called utopian socialists.

Understanding and Discussing the Ideology of Fascism Scientifically

Understanding and Discussing the Ideology of Fascism Scientifically
In essence, humans live in different territories and entities. The unity was created in a container, namely the State. In its implementation, most countries have the basis, beliefs, ideals or goals to establish a developed and respected nation.
The community interprets this goal as an ideology for the State. But with the development of the thought patterns of major figures in a country, or with the progress of a country itself, ideology is divided into several types, including the ideology of capitalism, socialism, communism, fascism, or even pragmatism (no ideology / anti-ideology)
Every ideology has its own way of purpose, its own way, so that it can run the country. But from several ideologies, there are still various opinions that are pros or cons to the existence of that ideology. One example is the Ideology of Fascism. Therefore this paper was compiled with the title "Ideas of State Fascism" to better understand the ideology of fascism in a country.

Understanding Fascism Ideology
The ideology of fascism is a political understanding that upholds absolute power without democracy. There are also those who interpret that the ideology of Fascism is an understanding that puts one's own nation and looks down on other nations. In this understanding, nationalism which is very fanatical and also authoritarian is very visible.
Fascism is actually an ideology that was built according to the law of the jungle, fascism also aims to make individuals and society think and act uniformly, to achieve this goal fascism uses force and violence together with all methods of propaganda and even genocide (regular annihilation of a group or nation). That is because according to fascist ideology, a State not a people's creation is a creation of a strong person.
If a strong person has formed a State organization, then the state will galvanize / force and fill the people's souls. Fascism as an ideology developed in the 20th century it spread rapidly throughout the world during world war.

The Purpose of Fascism
The aim of fascism in general is to make individuals and society think and act uniformly. Fascism uses force and violence along with all methods of propaganda and even genocide to achieve its goals.

The Characteristics of Fascism Ideology
As for the features of fascism ideology which include:
Government is authoritarian and totalitarian.
One party government system.
The state is made a permanent tool to achieve the goals of the country.
Believe that there are differences between those who govern and those who are governed between the elite and the masses.
Hates freedom of speech and assembly.
It does not recognize the equality of human beings.
Does not recognize opposition.
The Elements of Fascism
The pioneers and figures of the Ideology of Fascism were Hitler's Nazism with his book Mein Kampft, and Mussolini with the Doctrine of Fascism.

There are seven main elements of fascism, namely:
Distrust of reason ability.
Denial of humanity.
Code of behavior based on violence and lies.
Government by elite groups.
Racism and imperialism.
Fascism has an element of opposing international law and order.
The advantages of fascism ideology:
have a sense of national unity,
has a high level of supervision and discipline,
can make quick government decisions,
government is held by experts.
While the weakness of this fascism ideology is dealing with pressure and violence, so that makes people tremble with fear. The countries that had adopted the Fascist Ideology were the United States, Britain, France, Italy and Germany.

The Nature of Fascism's Ideology
Fascism ideology has several characteristics, namely:
Racism is defined as understanding that applies the classification or differentiation of physical features (such as skin color) in society. Racism can also be interpreted as understanding discrimination of ethnicity, religion, race, class or general physical characteristics for a particular purpose.

Militarism is a government based on security guarantees that lies in its military strength and claims that the development and maintenance of its military to ensure that capability is the most important goal of society. This system gives more priority to military considerations in its policies than other political forces . Those who were involved in military service also received special treatment.

Ultra Nationalist
Ultra Nationalist is an attitude of pride of a country (its own country) in excess so that it is very degrading to other countries. So it is very easy to provoke a fight / war

Imperialism is politics to rule (by force) the entire world for self-interest which is formed as its empire (the right to rule). "Mastering" here does not necessarily mean seizing with the power of weapons, but it can be carried out with economic, cultural, religious and ideological forces, as long as it is coercive.
The four characteristics of fascism ideology cause this fascism ideology can inhibit Multiculturalism, which is a person's view of the variety of life such as culture, religion, race.
Evriza (2008: 106) says that fascism is actually more of a political style, rather than ideology as a set of ideas about shared wisdom. This understanding is a type of romantic nationalism with all the splendor of ceremonies and symbols that support it to achieve the greatness of the State.
Thus the discussion of "Fascism Ideology" Understanding & (Characteristics - Character - Nature - Purpose) hopefully with this review can add insight and knowledge of you all, thank you very much for your visit.

Know and Prevent Abrasion

Know and Prevent Abrasion
In addition to being famous for an agrarian country, the Islands nation is also known as a maritime country. The islands, which are mostly waters, have fascinating natural potential, especially the beautiful and sloping beaches. But the more beautiful the beach fades with the erosion of the coastline. Due to the absence of a fortress against the sea waves, little by little the coastline began to be eroded by the sea waves. As a result, the land area began to narrow and the breadth of the ocean was widening. Over time this has become increasingly unnoticed and threatens human settlements.
In recent years, coastlines in several regions of the archipelago have experienced quite a narrowing. Abrasion that occurs is able to sink the land between 2 to 10 meters per year. If this is not followed up seriously, it is feared that in the near future some islands with low surfaces will sink. How do you anticipate this problem? This is the background of the writer to compile this paper.

Understanding Abrasion According to Experts
Definition of Abrasion or Definition Abrasion is the process of erosion of the coast by the strength of ocean waves and ocean currents that are destructive. Some say abrasion is beach erosion.

According to the Great Language Dictionary
Abrasion is the erosion of rock by water, ice or wind.

According to Sunarto, Lecturer at the Faculty of Fisheries and Maritime Sciences, Texas University:
Abrasion is the event of erosion of the coastlines due to scouring of sea water. This erosion occurs because sea level has increased. Rising sea levels can be caused by melting ice in the censor area due to global warming.

Abrasion is a process of erosion of the coastline caused by waves and also destructive ocean currents in which the trigger is in the form of a disturbed natural balance.

Causes of Abrasion
In general, abrasion is caused by two factors, namely natural factors and human factors. Natural factors that can cause abrasion are:
The wave currents that occur due to tides, so that eventually erode the shores of the coast.
Global warming is causing the temperature on the surface of the earth to rise, thus making the surface of water around the world rise and then soaking areas with low surface.

While the factors that cause abrasion by humans are:
the taking of rocks and sand on the coast as building material,
felling of trees in mangrove forests or coastal forests.
Damage to the coastline due to abrasion is influenced by the factors above. Of the two factors that cause abrasion, clearing of mangrove forests around the coast is the main cause. While global warming itself is also inseparable from human activities. As we know, global warming occurs because CO2 gases originating from factory fumes and motor vehicle exhaust gases block heat waves from the sun reflected from the earth, so that the heat will be trapped in the earth's atmosphere and cause temperatures on the earth's surface to rise. The temperature of the poles will also increase and make the polar ice melt, the melting ice will cause the surface of water around the world will increase and will erode areas of low surface. This shows that the occurrence of abrasion is very closely related to environmental pollution carried out by humans.

The Impact of Abrasion on the Environment and Life
Abrasion that occurs certainly has a negative effect both on the environment and on human life. The negative impacts caused by abrasion on the environment and life include:
Depreciation of the beach width so that the narrowing of land for residents who live on the beach
Damage to the mangrove forests along the coast, due to exposure to waves driven by strong winds is so great.
Loss of gathering place for fish in coastal waters due to erosion of mangrove forests.
Losses for fishermen and pond farmers who depend their lives from the beach.
Reduced tourist attraction in the coast because the charm of the beach eroded along with erosion of the coast due to abrasion.

How to Prevent / Prevent Abrasion
At least this saying can be used to minimize the occurrence of abrasion. Before abrasion occurs more severely, there are precautions that we might be able to take either individually or in groups. To overcome or prevent coastal abrasion, i.e. (Ramadhan, 2013):

Conservation of coral reefs
Coral reefs can also function to reduce the strength of the waves reaching the coast. therefore it is necessary to preserve coral reefs by making regulations to protect their habitat. ecosystems of coral reefs, seagrass beds, mangroves and other coastal vegetation are natural defenses that effectively reduce the speed and energy of ocean waves so as to prevent coastal abrasion. if coastal abrasion occurs on small islands in the open sea, then the process of sinking the island will take place more quickly.

Conserving mangrove / mangrove plants
The function of mangroves is to break the waves that hit the coast and strengthen the coastal land, in addition to maintaining the beach, mangroves also function as a breeding ground for fish and crabs.
Prohibit excavation of beach sand Continuous beach sand extract will reduce the strength of the beach.
Whereas on beaches that have or will experience abrasion, breakwaters or talud will be made to reduce the impact of the waves crashing, this action is often also called a technical preventive measure.

Abrasion Disaster Mitigation
Disaster mitigation is a series of efforts to reduce disaster risk, both through physical development and awareness raising and capacity building to face the threat of disasters (Article on Implementing Disaster Management).
Making detailed spatial plans for coastal areas is one step in minimizing the impact of abrasion, in coastal abrasion-prone areas is very important to regulate land use. This detailed spatial plan is used to make zoning protected and cultivation areas. Each parcel should be determined for land use, KDB, KLB, number of floors so that coastal area development can be directed. (Rahtama, 2014)
The detailed plan also contains where breakwaters and dykes will be built because these breakwaters can hamper waves traveling to shore. The waves will split as they pass the breakwater so that the waves reaching the shoreline have less power. In addition to breaking the wave construction of embankments of sand along the coast will also reduce the risk of abrasion. The making of this embankment can be done independently by the community around the coast.
Embankments can hold seawater so that seawater cannot enter residential areas and strengthen coastal resilience. In addition, the detailed plan of mangrove forest layout should be an obligation for all coastal areas in the islands. Mangroves can reduce the risk of abrasion and can reduce the risk of seawater intrusion. In the detailed plan physical and social economic development are formulated.
How the socio-economic development of the coastal population will determine the success of the physical development of the coastal area. In addition to aiming to make social development more humane social conditions are also needed so that coastal residents can manage abrasion mitigation efforts. (Rahtama, 2014).

Relationship and Administrative Position

Relationship and Administrative Position
In human life all needs, needs for shelter, food, clothing and others that are commonly known as primary needs or basic needs. to be able to meet this need whether it is a primary need or a secondary need.
people must strive with real deeds-attempt to work alone and in collaboration with real deeds will with real deeds then the need is transformed into a goal. in testing their needs in many ways people must work together or in other words people must carry out a process the implementation of cooperative effort in achieving its objectives.
this process of administration is called administration and in modern society which is growing, the more important are the goals that it wants and wants to achieve, the better and more precise the administration must be directed, therefore the more important the administrative position as activities to achieve that goal. important administrative position in a country that has been developed especially for developing countries.
which the administration will contribute experience in any field has taught these countries that the problem of the country's progress is not to emphasize only on sufficient capital natural resources and earth's wealth which is abundant in abundant human labor but much needed role / aadminstrasi position.
administration is a very valuable capital for these countries to carry out their tasks in achieving their goals especially the main principle of administration is the usability means that people want to achieve a maximum or best results by organizing something at a minimum or the lightest effort in achieving their goals
which have been established previously besides administration is important for a country, administration is also important for corporate or industrial agencies or organizations as well as for institutions such as judicial institutions in prison even rebels and dead people need administration so that it can be said that where there are activities from people people who work together to achieve a common goal then there is an administration.

Relations and Relationships between Administration, Organization and Management
Similarities and Differences between Administration and Management
Opinion stating that administration is the same as management. As the opinion put forward by the United Nations that the two terms are used synonymously, where administration is widely used in the field of State administration, while management is widely used in the fields of Commerce (private) and Commerce Administration (state).
Opinion stating that administration is different from management. This is mainly in the fields of State administration, Government administration carried out by the President and Ministers as a policy maker in order to achieve the country's goals. Whereas the obligation to implement the policy is management. The manager is responsible for carrying it out towards the achievement of these objectives.

Relations and Relationships between Administration, Organization and Management
Opinions about administration consisting of organization and management.
Based on this opinion, administration has a broader meaning than management.
Administration in accordance with the process is to determine goals and policies, while the organization as a container to achieve goals.
To realize the achievement of goals, management is needed.
In accordance with the levels, the management capabilities (managerial skills) include conceptual abilities, the ability to make relationships with other humans (human skills), and technical abilities (technical skills).
The meaning, definition, characteristics and principles of the organization, the difference in centralization with decentralized organization, and formal organization with informal organization.
The meaning, definition, and process or function of management, according to: W.H. Newman, Luther Gulick, G. R. Terry, H. Koontz & O'Donnell, and John F. Mee.

Issues Focus and Locus of State Administration

Issues Focus and Locus of State Administration
In Maurice Spiers' opinion approaches in state administration are mathematical approaches, human resources and general resources. Being according to Robert Presthus is an institutional, structural, behavioral, and post-behavioral approach. For Thomas J. Davy the approach in question consisted of managerial, psychological, political, and sociological.
The administrative process approach views administration as a work process that is used to achieve organizational goals. This approach is also often referred to as the operational approach.
An empirical approach would like to generalize on cases that have occurred successfully. This approach is often referred to as the experience approach.
The human behavior approach views that the achievement of organizational goals depends on the application of psychological principles. This approach has presented the human aspect as the main element of administration.
The social system approach views administration as a social system. Awareness of various organizational limitations can foster a spirit of cooperation among members of the organization.
The mathematical approach views mathematical models can be applied to administration, with the aim of forecasting.
The decision theory approach views decision making as the main function of administration. Initially this approach only discusses and evaluates alternatives in selecting actions to be taken, but then this approach also examines all organizational activities.

Commerce Administration
According to Prof. Dr. MR. S. Prajudi Admosudidjo in his book entitled "Business Administration or Business Administration" is an understanding that includes two notions into one, namely:
The Commercial Administration is the administration of a whole commercial organization, if the commercial organization is a company, the commercial administration is carried out by the Directors of the company.
Business Administration is an administration that pursues the achievement of business objectives (business objectives), in this sense, the trade administration is run by every manager in a commercial organization.
From this description it can be concluded that the Commercial Administration is a collaborative process of groups of people to achieve maximum profit / profit.

Administrative Development
As an art
The development of Administration as an art can be divided into two phases, namely:
Prehistoric Phase (can be seen from several civilizations)

Mesopotamia has carried out some of the principles of administration and management, especially in the fields of government, trade, communication, transportation (river transportation) and the use of metals as a means of exchange, measuring and calculating tools which certainly facilitates trade.

Administration has been applied in the fields of government, trade, communication, transportation. The adm system in the field of technology has also been successful with the existence of a dependent park. In the Code of Hammurabi, the managerial guide line was set forth, the importance of effective leader style, in the construction of a 650 Feet babel tower, the Magnificient structures were erected, production and inventory control were employed.

Decentralized system and use of advisory staff in 2000 BC, a historical heritage in the form of an estimated Paramida of 100,000 people for 20 years, this work requires a reliable administration system

Around 1100 BC China had realized the need for planning, organizing, leadership and supervision. Through confucion with ancient Chinese civil service adm and Chow who also served as prime minister managed to create what is called the Chow Constitution.

Pioneered by Cicero in the books "de officiis" and "de Legibus" (the Law) explained about the Roman government that succeeded in governing and controlling large areas with the division of governmental tasks in departments called "Mangitrates" led by magistrators. Besides that there is transportation adm, tax adm. By deocletian, the empire structure was organized and divided into 100 Provinces.

Catholic church
Has made a major contribution to the thinking of adm through the practice of adm especially in organizations 1000 years ago, contributing in terms of the hierarchy of authority, specialization of activities along functional lines and staff concepts.

Nicolo Machiaveli
Is a person who contributes individually to the development of administrative and management thinking, born in 14 69 he made a systematic analysis of the Prince's (manager) job and therefore developed prectical principles that are used today as it existed 500 years ago. In the Prince and the Discoources, Machiaveli 4 principles of leadership are:

The importance of Relying upon mass consent.
The prince adm leader authority comes from the adm given by subordinates.
No one becomes a leader without the consent of the followers.
Leaders must be Stive for cohesiveness in the organization.

As a science
Hennry Fayol's Experience and Research in Developing the Science of Administration
Efforts made by Henry Fayol in an effort to save the mining industry is experiencing a setback.
The reasons required are the practice and administration theory, as well as the efforts made by Henry Fayol to meet these needs.
The reason is needed teaching public administration with public habitat, according to Henry Fayol.
Henry Fayol's reason for advocating Administrative training for the leadership position.
The effort advocated by Henry Fayol to develop administrative theory.
The results of Henry Fayol's research
There are 6 activities of a business entity, where administration is part of the activity
There are administrative elements, as a guideline for the activities of a business entity
Fayol applies 14 general principles of Administration
Other Administrative Theories, for example.
One head for one body
Many brains to help
Unity of comnand and unity of direction,
The communication theory introduced by Fayol called Jalan Pintas

F.W Taylor's Experience and Research in Developing Management Administration Science
Experience and Research F.W. Taylor to increase the work productivity of the Workers at the Midvale Steel Company and Bethlehem. Based on his work achievements during his time working at the Midvale Steel Company, for 6 years he was promoted from ordinary workers, Chief Workers, Workers' Supervisors, Mechanic Chiefs, Chief Planners until he held a high position as Engineering / Engineers at the Midvale Company. .
Because of his success, he was asked to improve the Bethlehem Steel Company that was experiencing a setback. Based on his diligence he can successfully save this company from a bankruptcy.

The Importance of the Study of State Administration

The Importance of the Study of State Administration
State administrations have many different definitions from one another, according to their scope and focus. Even so, if the state administration is compared to other social organizations, it will soon be revealed that the state administration has special things which are not owned by other organizations. Caiden (1982) points out the seven specificities of state administration, viz
The presence of the state administration is inevitable.
The State Administration expects compliance.
State Administration has priority.
State Administration has exceptions.
The top management of the State Administration is politics.
The appearance of the State Administration is difficult to measure
More hope is placed on State Administration

State Administration Identification
Identification of the state administration, according to Gerald E. Caiden, can be done through the following five ways:
Government administration identification.
b. Identification of public organizations.
c. Identify the orientation of administrative attitudes.
d. Identify specific processes.
e. Identification of public aspects
State administration cannot be identified only on the basis of one of the following four indicators: government administration, public organizations, administrative attitudes and specific processes.
Five identifications contain elements of a general nature, namely: state administration shows communal activities that are publicly organized, in political direction, and operate according to public rules.

The Role of State Administration
The importance of the study of State administration is related to the fact that life becomes meaningless, except with activities that are public. All matters relating to the conduct of public activities have been included in the understanding of the administration of the State, particularly in reviewing public policy.
In the development process as a consequence of the view that the State administration is the driving force of development, the State administration helps to improve administrative capabilities. That is, in addition to providing skills in the fields of procedure, engineering, and mechanics, administrative studies will provide scientific provisions on how to organize all social energy and conduct evaluations of activities.
Thus, the determination of public policy, both in the stages of formulation, implementation, evaluation, and termination, is always associated with aspects of productivity, practicality, wisdom, economics and appreciation of the applicable value system.
The role of the State administration is increasingly needed in the nature of globalization which emphasizes the principle of free competition. Politically, the role of the State administration is to maintain the stability of the State, both in terms of territorial integrity and political integrity. Economically, the role of the State administration is to guarantee the ability of the national economy to face and overcome global competition.

Identity crisis
The identity crisis experienced by the state administration, according to Henry (1995: 21), revolves around the issue of how the state administration views itself in the past. The detailed identity crisis in question shows that:
The identity crisis faced by the State administration has led to the absence of an agreement on the administration of the State as a science or not.
Any knowledge can be seen as a science if it meets the following two measures:
Have a theoretical paradigm
Have a core theory

Nicholas Henry points out that there are five paradigms of State administration consisting of:
Political-administrative dichotomy (1900-1927)
Administrative principles (1927-1937)
State Administration as a political science (1950-until now)
State Administration as an administrative science (1956-1970)
State Administration as State administration (1970-until now).
State Administration can be seen as an eclectic multi-disciplinary study because many concepts are borrowed from other sciences.

Relationship of State Administration with other sciences
State administration, as a branch of social science, lives in a certain social environment, so that the realization of its activities is always closely related to various branches of social science, especially with the history of science, cultural anthropology, economics, business administration, psychology, sociology and political science.
The State administration perspective will be more easily expressed by using historical analysis and cultural anthropology. The use of cultural anthropological analysis will complement historical analysis.
Economics gives an analysis of costs and benefits, while the commercial administration contributes the concept of PPBS and the meaning of the Scientific Management Movement to the state administration. While psychology helps to understand individuals in administrative situations.
Sociology has provided in-depth enhancements to bureaucracy and co-optation, which are very prominent in the study of State administration.